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For example, King Louis XIII of France outlawed dueling in 1626, a law which remained in force for ever afterwards, and his successor Louis XIV intensified efforts to wipe out the duel.
Despite these efforts, dueling continued unabated, and it is estimated that between 16, French officers fought 10,000 duels, leading to over 400 deaths.
According to Ariel Roth, during the reign of Henry IV, over 4,000 French aristocrats were killed in duels "in an eighteen-year period" while a twenty-year period of Louis XIII's reign saw some eight thousand pardons for "murders associated with duels".
Roth also notes that thousands of men in the Southern United States "died protecting what they believed to be their honor." The first published code duello, or "code of dueling", appeared in Renaissance Italy.
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.
Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, and continued into the modern period (19th to early 20th centuries) especially among military officers.
On occasion, duels with pistols or swords were fought between women.